What is the full form of ABG and Arterial Blood Gas

The abbreviation ABG stands for Arterial Blood Gas. It is a test that is used to determine the quantities of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acidity (pH) in the blood of an artery. This test determines how effective your lungs are at delivering oxygen to the bloodstream and removing carbon dioxide. When blood travels through the lungs, oxygen from the air in the lungs enters the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide from the bloodstream exits the lungs.

Blood is collected from an artery before it penetrates bodily tissues in this test. This gives you the following information or measures the following:
The partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2) is the pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood. The oxygen pressure indicates how quickly oxygen leaves the lungs and enters the bloodstream.


Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is the pressure of carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood. It demonstrates how quickly carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream and enters the lungs.

The hydrogen ions (H+)/pH in the blood are measured by pH. A solution with a pH of less than 7 is acidic, while one with a pH of more than 7 is basic/alkaline. The pH of arterial blood ranges from 7.38 to 7.42 in general. As a result, it has a simple nature.

Bicarbonate (HCO3) is a chemical that aids in the maintenance of blood pH. It keeps the blood from becoming overly acidic or basic.

Oxygen saturation (O2Sat) and oxygen content (O2CT) values: The amount of oxygen in the blood is measured by the O2 content value. The oxygen saturation number indicates how much oxygen is carried by total haemoglobin in red blood cells.